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(Some) Creation Techniques
The act of creation often goes beyond getting an idea or an image, but also how to transmit and translate this idea into a physical environment. That is why artists prove, combine and invent different techniques and materials to get one that gives them more satisfaction. In the world of Graphic Work there is a diversity of printing techniques thanks to this constant search of artists. We have selected some of these techniques to give the reader a general idea of how a original print is "brought to the world" .

 Engraving
 
Linocut
 
Carborundum Engraving
 
Woodcut
 
Drypoint
 
Mezzotint
 
Lithography
 
Serigraphy
 
Giclée
 

Engraving

The word "engraving" was used to describe a generically different printing techniques, even to refer to the Graphic Work in general. Strictly speaking, etching refers only to a group of techniques where the image is carved (chiseled, bitten, etc.) on a sheet of wood, stone or metal, which is then inked, transferring the image to paper by means of a press. Printmaking techniques are divided into two groups according to the way the ink is transferred to paper:
    Relief Etching: The ink is transferred from the prominent parts of the plate to the paper. The woodcut and linocut are relief etching techniques .
    Hollow Etching (Intaglio): Ink is transferred from the cavities of the plate to the paper. Etching, Mezzotint, Aquatint and Carborundum Etching are most popular Intaglio techniques.

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Linocut

Linoleum was invented in England in 1863 by Frederick Walton, who gave him the name derived from the Latin Linum which means linen and Oleum which means oil. A thick mixture of oxidized linseed oil combined with pine resin to produce long, thin slices.
This technique involves carving the image on a sheet of linoleum, removing the "white" image to print uncut areas. Being a soft material, it is very easy to work on it but at the same time is less resistant and only allows short editions. Nor they can achieve many details and very fine lines. Due to the ease of carving, this technique is widely used for education, but great artists as Matisse and Picasso made linoleum prints.

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Carborundum Engraving

Carborundum (silicon carbide) is a mineral of high hardness that is used, among other things as an abrasive. To prepare the printing plate, carborundum can be used as an agent to iron out areas of a metal sheet and achieve halftone printing. But the way to use it that gives its name to the technique today, was developed by Antoni Tapies and involves mixing powder carborundum resin and other material to make a kind of collage on the plate printing. Thanks to the strength of this material, with this technique you can make long runs of an edition. The printed works with this technique are rich in texture and with a unique finish.

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Woodcut

The woodcut or wood engraving is one of the oldest printing techniques. There are Chinese woodcuts from the first century of our era.
On a block of hard wood (usually cherry, pear, apple or boxwood), the design is carved with gouges and chisels to discard the "white" of the image so that the "stain" is embossed. Then the wood is inked with a roller, the paper is placed and passed through the press to print the sheet.

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Drypoint

It consists of draw directly and freehand on a sheet of copper or zinc, with a very sharp fine-tipped instrument. In drypoint, the needle leaves a small burrs on the inked plate to produce a blurred effect printing, which is particular for this technique. The rapid wear of these burrs, makes the plate can only be used for short runs.

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Mezzotint

It is considered one of the most difficult techniques or at least the most laborious. The process begins by plotting a copper foil with a serrated instrument shaped like a half moon, with horizontal, vertical and diagonal lines. A "plate in black" is obtained, because is the resulting color if printed at this stage (hence the name mezzotint or black way). From this time the artist must scrape or sand the surface partially or fully to achieve gradations of tone. One feature of the mezzotint is the unique velvety finish. Mario Avati and Mikio Watanabe are among the contemporary artists who still use this technique.

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Lithography

From the Greek word lithos (stone), this technique relies on the principle that oil and water are rejected. On a prepared limestone an image is drawn with grease pencils, this plate is moistened with water and when the ink is applied, it adheres only to areas previously drawn. This system was invented by the German Alois Senefelder in 1796, in his search for a economic form of printing his scores. Over the years this method became industrialized and although any kind of "rock" is no longer used, it continued to use the name lithography. That is why the word lithography has a duality of meanings in the art world. A "lithography" could be a poster made with industrial printing machines for mass runs. Or it may be a limited edition Graphic Work done with the original printing technique where you draw freehand on a limestone. Some authors refer to the latter as "stone lithography", which although redundancy serves to differentiate from industrial craftsmanship.

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Serigraphy

This word comes from the Greek "serikos" (silk) and refers to the printing system in which a processed fabric is stretched over a wooden frame. Ink is then spread over this fabric letting pass the ink in certain areas. The modern version of this method consists of preparing a fine mesh cloth (or nylon) applying a photosensitive emulsion, then the image is placed as a transparency in black and white and is exposed to strong light. The illuminated parts harden into an impermeable layer. This mesh is washed to remove debris and tensioned in a rigid frame. To print the image on paper or canvas, with frame is placed face down, pour a little ink within the frame and spread with a rubber spatula.

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Giclée

It is one of the most recent printing techniques of graphic works. The name comes from French and means "stream", which is how the ink gets to the paper. The artist can create an image directly from a computer or scanned image to work it on the monitor. Using a special type of high-resolution printers with pigmented inks and treated papers, unparalleled image is created and in formats never seen before.

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